每天下班抠一点时间出来写，听课的时候higher-order functions没怎么看明白，感觉像懂了，写到phase 2的几问才发现根本没懂再回去补课。整体写起来很有意思，目前的胜率是0.5496381517033135，题目里给的hint只用了一个，如果之后有兴趣再研究看看怎么提高胜率

题目链接（2019 fall）

粗糙的代码也存个档

```
"""CS 61A Presents The Game of Hog."""
from dice import six_sided, four_sided, make_test_dice
from ucb import main, trace, interact
GOAL_SCORE = 100 # The goal of Hog is to score 100 points.
######################
# Phase 1: Simulator #
######################
def roll_dice(num_rolls, dice=six_sided):
"""Simulate rolling the DICE exactly NUM_ROLLS > 0 times. Return the sum of
the outcomes unless any of the outcomes is 1. In that case, return 1.
num_rolls: The number of dice rolls that will be made.
dice: A function that simulates a single dice roll outcome.
"""
# These assert statements ensure that num_rolls is a positive integer.
assert type(num_rolls) == int, 'num_rolls must be an integer.'
assert num_rolls > 0, 'Must roll at least once.'
# BEGIN PROBLEM 1
sum_out = 0
terms = 0
pig_flag = False
while terms < num_rolls:
outcome = dice()
if outcome == 1:
pig_flag = True
else:
sum_out = sum_out + outcome
terms = terms + 1
if pig_flag == True:
return 1
else:
return sum_out
# END PROBLEM 1
def free_bacon(score):
"""Return the points scored from rolling 0 dice (Free Bacon).
score: The opponent's current score.
"""
assert score < 100, 'The game should be over.'
# BEGIN PROBLEM 2
f_score = 0
tens = 0
ones = 0
if score < 10:
f_score = 10
else:
tens = score // 10
ones = score % 10
f_score = 10 - min(tens, ones)
return f_score
# END PROBLEM 2
def take_turn(num_rolls, opponent_score, dice=six_sided):
"""Simulate a turn rolling NUM_ROLLS dice, which may be 0 (Free Bacon).
Return the points scored for the turn by the current player.
num_rolls: The number of dice rolls that will be made.
opponent_score: The total score of the opponent.
dice: A function that simulates a single dice roll outcome.
"""
# Leave these assert statements here; they help check for errors.
assert type(num_rolls) == int, 'num_rolls must be an integer.'
assert num_rolls >= 0, 'Cannot roll a negative number of dice in take_turn.'
assert num_rolls <= 10, 'Cannot roll more than 10 dice.'
assert opponent_score < 100, 'The game should be over.'
# BEGIN PROBLEM 3
if num_rolls != 0:
turn_score = roll_dice(num_rolls, dice)
else:
turn_score = free_bacon(opponent_score)
return turn_score
# END PROBLEM 3
def is_swap(player_score, opponent_score):
"""
Return whether the two scores should be swapped
"""
# BEGIN PROBLEM 4
last_player = player_score % 10
last_opp = opponent_score % 10
while player_score // 10 != 0:
player_score = player_score // 10
first_player = player_score % 10
while opponent_score // 10 != 0:
opponent_score = opponent_score // 10
first_opp = opponent_score % 10
if first_player * last_player == first_opp * last_opp:
return True
else:
return False
# END PROBLEM 4
def other(player):
"""Return the other player, for a player PLAYER numbered 0 or 1.
>>> other(0)
1
>>> other(1)
0
"""
return 1 - player
def silence(score0, score1):
"""Announce nothing (see Phase 2)."""
return silence
def play(strategy0, strategy1, score0=0, score1=0, dice=six_sided,
goal=GOAL_SCORE, say=silence, feral_hogs=True):
"""Simulate a game and return the final scores of both players, with Player
0's score first, and Player 1's score second.
A strategy is a function that takes two total scores as arguments (the
current player's score, and the opponent's score), and returns a number of
dice that the current player will roll this turn.
strategy0: The strategy function for Player 0, who plays first.
strategy1: The strategy function for Player 1, who plays second.
score0: Starting score for Player 015
score1: Starting score for Player 1
dice: A function of zero arguments that simulates a dice roll.
goal: The game ends and someone wins when this score is reached.
say: The commentary function to call at the end of the first turn.
feral_hogs: A boolean indicating whether the feral hogs rule should be active.
"""
player = 0 # Which player is about to take a turn, 0 (first) or 1 (second)
# BEGIN PROBLEM 5
num_rolls_pre0 = 0
num_rolls_pre1 = 0
while score0 < goal and score1 < goal:
if player == 0:
num_rolls = strategy0(score0, score1)
score0 += take_turn(num_rolls, score1, dice)
if abs(num_rolls - num_rolls_pre0) == 2:
score0 = score0 + 3
num_rolls_pre0 = num_rolls
else:
num_rolls = strategy1(score1, score0)
score1 += take_turn(num_rolls, score0, dice)
if abs(num_rolls - num_rolls_pre1) == 2:
score1 = score1 + 3
num_rolls_pre1 = num_rolls
if is_swap(score0, score1) == True:
score0, score1 = score1, score0
say = say(score0, score1)
player = other(player)
return score0, score1
#######################
# Phase 2: Commentary #
#######################
def say_scores(score0, score1):
"""A commentary function that announces the score for each player."""
print("Player 0 now has", score0, "and Player 1 now has", score1)
return say_scores
def announce_lead_changes(previous_leader=None):
"""Return a commentary function that announces lead changes.
>>> f0 = announce_lead_changes()
>>> f1 = f0(5, 0)
Player 0 takes the lead by 5
>>> f2 = f1(5, 12)
Player 1 takes the lead by 7
>>> f3 = f2(8, 12)
>>> f4 = f3(8, 13)
>>> f5 = f4(15, 13)
Player 0 takes the lead by 2
"""
def say(score0, score1):
if score0 > score1:
leader = 0
elif score1 > score0:
leader = 1
else:
leader = None
if leader != None and leader != previous_leader:
print('Player', leader, 'takes the lead by', abs(score0 - score1))
return announce_lead_changes(leader)
return say
def both(f, g):
"""Return a commentary function that says what f says, then what g says.
NOTE: the following game is not possible under the rules, it's just
an example for the sake of the doctest
>>> h0 = both(say_scores, announce_lead_changes())
>>> h1 = h0(10, 0)
Player 0 now has 10 and Player 1 now has 0
Player 0 takes the lead by 10
>>> h2 = h1(10, 6)
Player 0 now has 10 and Player 1 now has 6
>>> h3 = h2(6, 17)
Player 0 now has 6 and Player 1 now has 17
Player 1 takes the lead by 11
"""
def say(score0, score1):
return both(f(score0, score1), g(score0, score1))
return say
def announce_highest(who, previous_high=0, previous_score=0):
"""Return a commentary function that announces when WHO's score
increases by more than ever before in the game.
NOTE: the following game is not possible under the rules, it's just
an example for the sake of the doctest
>>> f0 = announce_highest(1) # Only announce Player 1 score gains
>>> f1 = f0(12, 0)
>>> f2 = f1(12, 11)
11 point(s)! That's the biggest gain yet for Player 1
>>> f3 = f2(20, 11)
>>> f4 = f3(13, 20)
>>> f5 = f4(20, 35)
15 point(s)! That's the biggest gain yet for Player 1
>>> f6 = f5(20, 47) # Player 1 gets 12 points; not enough for a new high
>>> f7 = f6(21, 47)
>>> f8 = f7(21, 77)
30 point(s)! That's the biggest gain yet for Player 1
>>> f9 = f8(77, 22) # Swap!
>>> f10 = f9(33, 77) # Swap!
55 point(s)! That's the biggest gain yet for Player 1
"""
assert who == 0 or who == 1, 'The who argument should indicate a player.'
def say(score0, score1, previous_score=previous_score, previous_high=previous_high):
if who == 0:
climb = score0 - previous_score
previous_score = score0
else:
climb = score1 - previous_score
previous_score = score1
if climb > previous_high:
previous_high = climb
print(climb, 'point(s)! That\'s the biggest gain yet for Player', who)
return announce_highest(who, previous_high, previous_score)
return say
#######################
# Phase 3: Strategies #
#######################
def always_roll(n):
"""Return a strategy that always rolls N dice.
A strategy is a function that takes two total scores as arguments (the
current player's score, and the opponent's score), and returns a number of
dice that the current player will roll this turn.
>>> strategy = always_roll(5)
>>> strategy(0, 0)
5
>>> strategy(99, 99)
5
"""
def strategy(score, opponent_score):
return n
return strategy
def make_averaged(fn, num_samples=1000):
"""Return a function that returns the average value of FN when called.
To implement this function, you will have to use *args syntax, a new Python
feature introduced in this project. See the project description.
>>> dice = make_test_dice(4, 2, 5, 1)
>>> averaged_dice = make_averaged(dice, 1000)
>>> averaged_dice()
3.0
"""
# BEGIN PROBLEM 8
def average_value(*args):
result, average = 0, 0
k = 0
while k < num_samples:
result += fn(*args)
k += 1
average = result / num_samples
return average
return average_value
# END PROBLEM 8
def max_scoring_num_rolls(dice=six_sided, num_samples=1000):
"""Return the number of dice (1 to 10) that gives the highest average turn
score by calling roll_dice with the provided DICE over NUM_SAMPLES times.
Assume that the dice always return positive outcomes.
>>> dice = make_test_dice(1, 6)
>>> max_scoring_num_rolls(dice)
1
"""
# BEGIN PROBLEM 9
roll = 10
max_average = 0
max_roll = 10
while roll > 0:
turn_average = make_averaged(roll_dice, num_samples)(roll, dice)
if turn_average >= max_average:
max_average = turn_average
max_roll = roll
roll -= 1
return max_roll
# END PROBLEM 9
def winner(strategy0, strategy1):
"""Return 0 if strategy0 wins against strategy1, and 1 otherwise."""
score0, score1 = play(strategy0, strategy1)
if score0 > score1:
return 0
else:
return 1
def average_win_rate(strategy, baseline=always_roll(4)):
"""Return the average win rate of STRATEGY against BASELINE. Averages the
winrate when starting the game as player 0 and as player 1.
"""
win_rate_as_player_0 = 1 - make_averaged(winner)(strategy, baseline)
win_rate_as_player_1 = make_averaged(winner)(baseline, strategy)
return (win_rate_as_player_0 + win_rate_as_player_1) / 2
def run_experiments():
"""Run a series of strategy experiments and report results."""
if True: # Change to False when done finding max_scoring_num_rolls
six_sided_max = max_scoring_num_rolls(six_sided)
print('Max scoring num rolls for six-sided dice:', six_sided_max)
if False: # Change to True to test always_roll(8)
print('always_roll(6) win rate:', average_win_rate(always_roll(6)))
if False: # Change to True to test bacon_strategy
print('bacon_strategy win rate:', average_win_rate(bacon_strategy))
if False: # Change to True to test swap_strategy
print('swap_strategy win rate:', average_win_rate(swap_strategy))
if False: # Change to True to test final_strategy
print('final_strategy win rate:', average_win_rate(final_strategy))
"*** You may add additional experiments as you wish ***"
def bacon_strategy(score, opponent_score, margin=8, num_rolls=4):
"""This strategy rolls 0 dice if that gives at least MARGIN points, and
rolls NUM_ROLLS otherwise.
"""
# BEGIN PROBLEM 10
if free_bacon(opponent_score) >= margin:
return 0
else:
return num_rolls
# END PROBLEM 10
def swap_strategy(score, opponent_score, margin=8, num_rolls=4):
"""This strategy rolls 0 dice when it triggers a beneficial swap. It also
rolls 0 dice if it gives at least MARGIN points and does not trigger a
non-beneficial swap. Otherwise, it rolls NUM_ROLLS.
"""
# BEGIN PROBLEM 11
bacon_score = free_bacon(opponent_score)
add_score = score + bacon_score
if is_swap(add_score, opponent_score) and add_score < opponent_score:
return 0
elif bacon_score >= margin:
if is_swap(add_score, opponent_score) and score > opponent_score:
return num_rolls
else:
return 0
else:
return num_rolls
# END PROBLEM 11
def final_strategy(score, opponent_score):
"""Write a brief description of your final strategy.
*** YOUR DESCRIPTION HERE ***
"""
dice = swap_strategy(score, opponent_score, margin=9, num_rolls=5)
return dice
##########################
# Command Line Interface #
##########################
# NOTE: Functions in this section do not need to be changed. They use features
# of Python not yet covered in the course.
@main
def run(*args):
"""Read in the command-line argument and calls corresponding functions.
This function uses Python syntax/techniques not yet covered in this course.
"""
import argparse
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="Play Hog")
parser.add_argument('--run_experiments', '-r', action='store_true',
help='Runs strategy experiments')
args = parser.parse_args()
if args.run_experiments:
run_experiments()
```